What is Computer and Types of Computer?

Ever since the computer was invented and people started knowing about it, the curiosity to know what is computer and when and by whom it was invented is increasing.

Computers have become the most important part of this era. Nowadays, all you need is a computer with the internet to do anything online.

Online work is mostly done on a computer, although it can sometimes be done on a mobile phone. 

Today, everything we need to do is done on a computer, and the name of the computer must be heard.

The student needs to see the exam results and one can do online banking, train ticket booking, online shopping, and hotel. Booking a doctor’s appointment, paying bills, and more.

Please think about it. Today you can sit at home and communicate with anyone in the world via the internet, watch your favourite programs on TV, withdraw money from anywhere with a simple card, and go shopping.

Many possibilities are possible. No one knows how many impossible things will become possible in the future.

So if you still think that computers are not something to learn, you are probably wrong. If you know what a computer is – its functions and key parts – it won’t take long to understand today’s technology.

I say this because everything that happens at the technological level is the result of the experiments carried out on this device.

What is Computer and Types of Computer
What is Computer and Types of Computer?

What is Computer?

A medium-powered machine used specifically for technical research and education. A computer is an electronic device that consists of several devices. The name computer comes from computare.

Simply put, computers take instructions from you and give results. In addition, data can be stored in computer storage for a long time to be retrieved again when needed.

The word computer is derived from the Indian word “computare” which means “to calculate”. Hundreds of years ago, this term was used by people who did calculations (i.e. mathematicians).

Later, when computers did the same, they became known as calculators. All the physical parts of the computer, such as wires, transistors, circuits, hard disks, etc., are called hardware, and all programs, and applications inside the computer are called software.

Computers are built to run programs and solve many problems through hardware and software.

The word computer comes from a Latin word that literally means “to calculate“, that is “computare“.

Charles Babbage is also called the father of the computer or the inventor of the computer because the first computer is believed to be the Analytical Engine, which was invented by Charles Babbage in 1837.

What is The full form of Computer?

There are many goodies on the internet, but some common goodies are:

  • C – Commonly
  • O – Operated
  • M – Machine
  • P – Particularly
  • U – Used For
  • T – Technology
  • E – Educational
  • R – Research

What are the basic parts of Computer?

If you look inside the computer case, you will notice that there are many small components inside that look very complicated, but actually, they are not that complicated. Here we provide information about these parts.

1. Input Device

An input is a computer unit that acts to give instructions to the computer. Some important input units are:

Keyboard – instructions are given to the computer in text form with the help of the keyboard. Instructions are given to the computer by typing on the keyboard.

Mouse – The cursor can be moved from one place to another on the computer using the mouse. The mouse is also used to guide the computer through graphics.

Touch Screen – A touch screen is an input device that a user uses to place a finger on the computer.

2. Motherboard

The main circuit board of the computer that looks like a thin screen, but can hold a lot of things is called the motherboard.

Connections for CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, expansion cards for video and audio control, connections to all ports on your computer, and more.

Where indicated, the motherboard is directly or indirectly connected to all parts of the computer.

3. Output Device

An output is a computer unit that results in instructions received by an input. Some important output devices are:

Monitor – A monitor, also known as a visual display unit (VDU), displays the results your computer receives as a soft copy.

Speaker – The speaker audibly transmits the results obtained by the computer.

Printer – A printer is used to print the data received from the computer on paper.

4. Memory

Memory is part of your computer where all kinds of data are stored. There are also two types of memory. Primary and secondary memory

Primary Memory – This is the main memory of the computer and is directly connected to the CPU. There are also two types.

RAM (Random Access Memory) – RAM is temporary memory where data is temporarily stored. All computer software runs only in RAM. When you turn off the power, all data stored on it will be deleted.

ROM (Read Only Memory) – ROM is the computer’s non-volatile memory where data is permanently stored.

Data stored in ROM cannot be changed. In this case, the data remains fixed by the manufacturer. Stored data is safe even when the power is off.

Secondary Memory – This is also persistent memory used for data backup. This memory is non-volatile. For example, hard disk, CD.

5. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the “brain” of the computer. Just like our brain thinks and makes decisions, the CPU also processes and provides output based on the instructions received from the user.

In a sense, the CPU controls the operation of all parts of the computer. The CPU is located in the socket on the motherboard

CPU is also called the brain of the computer because it is the vital part of the computer and controls all the activities inside the computer. There are also two types of CPUs.

Control memory – controls the instructions given to the computer

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) – Performs arithmetic operations.

6. Expansion Card

All computers have expansion slots for adding expansion cards in the future. These cards are also called PCI (Peripheral Components Interconnect).

But modern motherboards now have many slots. Name some expansion cards that can be used to upgrade older computers.

  • Bluetooth Card (Adapter)
  • Sound card
  • Video Card
  • Network Card

The first thing you should do when you open up your computer is unplugged it from the power outlet.

PC (Personal Computer)

A personal computer is also called a microcomputer. It is basically a general-purpose computer designed for personal use.

It consists of a CPU, and a microprocessor called a central processing unit, which apart from this contains memory units and input and output devices used by the user.

These types of computers are suitable for personal tasks such as doing homework, watching movies or doing office work. For example, this computer may be called a desktop computer or a laptop.

Features of Personal Computer:

  • They are very easy to use.
  • The Restricted Software may be installed and used on a personal computer.
  • They are designed for personal use.
  • This computer is the smallest size.
  • Anyone can buy and use a personal computer at a low price.

How does Computer work?

Computers mainly work in three stages: input, processing, and output.

1. Input – Input is the step of entering raw data into the computer using an input device. It can be a letter, a photo, or a video.

2. Processing – In this step, the entire work is done by the computer. In this case, all data entered into the computer is processed by the processor.

3. Output – The data already processed during output is displayed in the form of results. Optionally, you can save this result and keep it in memory for later use.

Types of Computer

If the term computer only refers to personal computers that you use at home or at work, you are wrong.

This term is generally used for electronic devices that take instructions (inputs) from the user, process them, and provide the user with the generated results (outputs).

The different types of computer equipment are explained below. Every time I hear the word computer, the image of a personal computer comes to my mind.

Let me tell you that there are different types of computers. They come in different shapes and sizes.

An ATM to withdraw money, a scanner to scan barcodes, a calculator to do big calculations, etc. depending on your needs.

1. Analog Computer 

An analog computer is a class of analog computing devices on which physical calculations are performed. Meanwhile, temperature, pressure, voltage, calculation, etc. machines are called analog computers.

Analog computer systems are very old computer systems that work in the form of variable physical quantities/devices such as machines, electricity, and hydraulics.

2. Digital Computer

Digital computers that use numbers to represent information are called digital computers.

They represent input data electronically by converting between 0 and 1. This information is displayed in the form of text, images, and graphics.

A desktop calculator is an example of a digital computer.

3. Hybrid Computer

Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit the characteristics of both analog and digital computers. This computer is built with a mix of analog and digital computers.

The main purpose of designing this computer is to perform very complex calculations.

In hybrid computers, the digital part is used to solve logical and technical calculations, and the analog part often serves as a solver of differential equations and other complex mathematical expressions.

It is widely used in large organizations. For example, the quantity of petrol at a petrol pump is used to calculate Rupees

Similarly, hybrid computers are ubiquitous in defense, airlines, ships, cement plants, gas stations, radar systems, meteorological departments, etc.

So far we have discussed three types of computers based on their ability to process data, but now there are five types of computers based on size, so let’s go over them here.

What are the types of Computer by size?

1. Mainframe computer

The artificial design of a central computer is such that it can process the data orders of hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Support for many programs at the same time

Therefore, different processes can run simultaneously. All these features make mainframes useful for large organizations such as banks and telecommunications sectors.

All these places generate a large amount of data that is processed by the main computers and transmitted to us.

Mainframe Computer Features:

  • After supercomputers, mainframes are the most expensive computers.
  • Main computers have high performance and high storage capacity.
  • It calculates very quickly by processing large amounts of data.
  • The mainframe works very smoothly and has a long life.

2. MicroComputer

A very compact microcomputer that can be used on a desktop. They are called personal computers. Mainly made for everyday use. These computers are available very cheaply.

For example – laptops, desktops, notebooks, tablets, etc.

3. Mini Computer

Small computers are also called “midrange computers”. Mini computers are designed to support several people at the same time.

It is a medium-sized multi-processing system computer that can support 250 users simultaneously, so it is usually used by businesses and small companies.

It is used for specific purposes by different departments of the company. For example, university admissions departments can use small computers for their work.

4. Supercomputer

The name of the computer comes first based on the size of the supercomputer. These supercomputers are very large and fast.

It is very fast when it comes to data processing. Supercomputers are designed to handle large amounts of data.

A supercomputer is capable of processing trillions of instructions or data in just one second. This is because thousands of processors are interconnected in a supercomputer.

It is primarily used in large-scale scientific research work such as weather forecasting, engineering applications, nuclear research, and oil and gas exploration.

Supercomputers were first developed by Seymour Carey in 1976.

Features of Supercomputer:

  • A supercomputer is a computer that is not only very expensive but also very fast.
  • It can perform 10 trillion individual calculations per second. That is why it is considered the fastest computer.
  • It is used in stock markets, large organizations censuses or anywhere big data is processed.
  • In the field of scientific research, it is used to analyze the data obtained from the exploration of the solar system and artificial satellites.

5. Workstations

This is a single-user computer. It looks like a personal computer but has a more powerful microprocessor and a better monitor than a microcomputer.

In terms of memory capacity and speed, it is placed between a microcomputer and a minicomputer.

  • Workstations are typically used for specialized applications such as desktop publishing, software development, and engineering (CAD/CAM) applications.
  • Workstations typically have graphical user interfaces, high-resolution graphics screens, lots of RAM, and built-in network support.
  • Most workstations also have a disk storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation called a diskless workstation does not come with a disk drive.

6. Digital Computer

DIGITAL COMPUTER (DIGITAL COMPUTER IN ENGLISH) Digital computers process information in binary form.

This is because digital machines can only understand binary numbers. The numbers zero and one are (0,1).

This is because digital machines can only understand binary numbers. Computers generally refer to digital electronic devices.

Other types of Computers

1. TV

Many TVs now have apps and programs that allow you to access a variety of online content. For example, you can stream videos directly from the Internet to your TV.

2. Wearable

Wearable technology is a collective term for a range of devices designed for all-day use, such as fitness trackers and smartwatches. These devices are often called wearables.

3. Smartphone

Many mobile phones allow you to do many things like surfing the internet and playing games. They are often called smartphones.

4. Game Control

A game console is a special type of computer that is used to play video games on television.

5. Tablet

Now let’s talk about tablets which are also known as handheld computers because they are easily held in your hand.

No keyboard and mouse, only a touch screen is used for input and navigation. Example – iPad.

Features of Computer

1. High Speed

Computers store information with very fast calculations. (SPEED), the computer works at high speed. Work speed is measured by MIPS.

MIPS stands for Mega Instruction Per Second, (Mega Instruction Per Second) MIPS stands for it. Another way to measure the speed of a computer is the speed of the computer’s microprocessor.

Microprocessor speed is measured in Hertz. MHz (MHz) Like GHz (GHz), the higher the hertz of a microprocessor, the more instructions it can execute per second.

This Hertz frequency is measured by clock speed. In general, the higher the clock speed, the faster the microprocessor. Those with a higher clock frequency run faster than those with a lower clock frequency.

(MHz): MHz: 1 MHz is equal to 1 (MHz) = 1000 kHz or 1000000 Hz. It can also be expressed as a million cycles per second.

(GHz): GHz: 1 GHz equals 1 GHz = 1000 (MHz) MHz, or 1000000000 Hz. Understand in simple language

A microprocessor with a clock speed of 3.2 gigahertz (GHz) executes instructions at 3.2 billion ( billion) cycles per second.

2. Accuracy

Data scientists and analysts use computers for tasks that require precise results, such as scientific research and data analysis because they can perform calculations with great precision.

3. Storage Capability

The greatest feature of computers is their ability to store large amounts of data. You can store different types of data such as images, videos, text, audio, and files on your computer.

Computers can store large amounts of data compared to humans.

4. Reliability

As far as computers are concerned, they are designed to be reliable. In other words, they are designed to work continuously for a very long time without breaking down or malfunctioning.

5. Versatility

Computers are very flexible machines and very easy to work with. Computers are machines that are used in different fields to solve different problems.

Some are used for calculations, and some for playing games.

6. Diligence

Today, humans get tired of working on something for hours, while computers can do anything for hours, days, or months.

It only reduces the accuracy of the result. Computers do everything indiscriminately, interesting or not.

What are the advantage of Computer?

The capacity of data storage in computer systems is very large. Computers can store millions of words in a very small space.

Store all kinds of data, photos, files, programs, games, and sounds for years. You can then retrieve and use the information anytime within seconds.

  • Multitasking is also a big plus. It allows you to multitask on your computer at the same time.
  • You can do many different types of tasks at the same time on your computer.
  • It makes it possible to communicate with people who are sitting in any corner of the world.
  • You can immediately see the information about the country and the world that you can see on the Internet from your home.
  • This is your source of entertainment.

What are the disadvantage of Computer

A stand-alone computer has many advantages, but it also has disadvantages:

  • Excessive computer use can damage your eyes.
  • Continuous work on a computer can be dangerous for your eyes and whole body and because of this you may have to face many health-related problems.
  • Computers can be used to learn many things, but today’s youth spend most of their time watching movies and playing games on these devices.
  • Theft of your information can harm you.
  • Using a computer without work is a waste of time.
  • With the advent of computers, many jobs have been lost and the problem of unemployment is increasing. Most children continue to play computer games and pay less attention to their studies.

What is future of Computer?

The future of computers lies not only in hardware and software but also in the people who use them.

As we enter a new age of computing, it’s important to recognize that the future of technology will be shaped by how we interact with it.

Computers are developing at an exponential rate. This is due to advances in artificial intelligence. In the future, computers will be able to do much more than provide information and fulfill basic needs.

It is able to perform tasks that humans do today, such as driving a car and writing an article.

The future of computers will change a lot. Data can be processed very quickly. Scientists are currently working on optical computers, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers.

In addition to this, a lot of attention has been paid to artificial intelligence so that it can easily do the work for itself.

What are the uses of Computer

Computers play an important role in every field of human life. Today’s humans cannot do anything without computers.

Computers are useful in all areas including homes, businesses, educational institutions, research institutions, medical fields, government offices, and entertainment.

Today, computers are everywhere. It has become one of the greatest human needs. Computers can be used in many places, including:

1. Home

Currently, computers are used in every home. All this is possible thanks to the PC. Computers have become cheaper and common people can now buy them.

Computers are used from home for online bill payment, online email, banking, online classes, social media, watching movies and show at home, playing games, accessing the Internet, and more.

Computers are becoming more useful among students for online education.

2. Education

Nowadays computers have become an integral part of education. Children’s learning ability can be increased with the help of computers.

Computers are used in schools for many tasks such as writing reports and conducting online exams.

3. Office

These days, the use of computers in offices has become common. Over the past 30 years, computers have gradually replaced typewriters, and Office files are now created on all computers using the Microsoft Office desktop software.

In offices, computers are used for all of these tasks, from letter writing to mailing list creation to employee payroll, payroll accounting, and data processing. Today, computers are essential for businesses in every industry.

4. Banking

Computers are used for almost all operations within the bank. Computers are used for many other functions like checking bank statements, printing passbooks, and more.

5. Medical Science

Major applications of computers in medicine include patient history, hospital information systems, data analysis in medicine, diagnostics, medical imaging laboratories, live patient monitoring, computer-assisted therapy, and patient databases.

The delicate operations of patients who live far away are also treated using computers.

Doctors are now using virtual reality (VR) for medical training. Medicine uses computers to help doctors treat patients accurately.

6. Defense and Military

Computers have made an important contribution to the defense and military fields. Enemy missiles are tracked and destroyed by computers.

7. Government

The use of computers in government offices has brought many benefits to citizens. Now citizens get all information and benefits of government programs online on their computers.

Today, citizens do not have to run to and from government offices. Computers are used to process data, maintain citizen databases and support paperless work.

Governments do development work, planning, military, education, satellites, missile launches, and computer programming.

8. Industry

Computers are used for many tasks in the industry such as inventory management, product design, quality control, virtual product design, interior design, and video conferencing.

Today’s online marketing brings products to the interior and rural areas.

Computers have played an important role in industries such as the stock market, and today people buy and sell stocks online. It is unimaginable to run an industry easily without computers.

9. Business

Computer and Business Integration From customer management, invoicing, inventory, and reporting to customer communication, computer use has become an integral part of the business.

Marketing in business, accounting.

10. Science and Engineering

In science and engineering, computers are used for research, prediction, and development. With the help of computers, scientists can predict events such as earthquakes, weather, hurricanes, and natural disasters.

Computers are used to simulate dynamic processes in scientific and engineering practice.

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